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Diana Zuleica Leal Pack:case studies, Latin America, Abranches 1985, affected volume
to study this data

The Crisis In Latin America And Its Impact On Women

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  • An important area needing more comparison and clarification concerns the composition of household labor.
  • In cases where work is transferred from the factory to the home, the women become even more housebound.
  • Since funding for the programs which remained came from the salaries of workers, any decrease in employment affected the volume of resources available for social benefits.
  • This can probably be done by combining aggregate data with case studies.

The increase in the number of working women has been greater than the increase in the number of men who are working. Due to the debt crisis, this trend is most noticeable in the more industrialized and urban countries in the region. Previous studies had indicated a trend toward greater inclusion of young and single women in the development process; the changes in female participation patterns noted above were observed with the onset of the recession.

Changes In Household Composition

Ricci discusses the differences in family situations and women’s work during the crisis as a function of social class. Barbieri and Oliveira similarly compare the way middle and working class women respond to the crisis. Humphrey , however, raises doubts as to whether poverty is the explanation for women joining the labor force. Although his data does not show the exact moment when women decide to join the workforce, he is correct in noting that the emphasis on the sole factor of poverty is insufficient to explain this phenomenon.

Social

Cuts in health and education services, for example, force women to spend more time caring for children and the sick, doing household chores, and standing in line for social services. Research on public services is becoming a topic of interest in Latin America, in spite of the lack of comparative data in this area. There is also a great lack of gender specific data with respect to this issue. Although women, racial and ethnic minorities and, in particular, women within racial and ethnic minority groups, are employed in sectors less affected by employment cutbacks, they have also felt the effects of the crisis in terms of lost income. It is difficult to make a comparison since no household surveys include data on ethnic groups.

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This can probably be done

In the north, some countries began to privatize many state enterprises. The Latin American military dictatorships implemented many policies to place social services in private hands, which left the basic needs of the poor for food, housing, primary education and health care unmet. Since funding for the programs which remained came from the salaries of workers, any decrease in employment affected the volume of resources available for social benefits. In periods of crisis, therefore, these programs were the first to suffer (Abranches, 1985, p.86). Other social policies were aimed at the private sector and benefited industry8, private clinics9, or middle class housing construction (Cardoso, 1984; Abranches, 1985).

The Crisis In Latin America And Its Impact On Women

When women lose their jobs, however, it is more difficult for them to find work in the same sector and the majority of those who return to work do so at home or as an unskilled laborer. Also, Feijoo and Jelin observed in Argentina that unemployed women, heads of households, have more difficulty finding work than do men in the same situation. Many young women and women with children look for work and are willing to do almost anything. More women than ever state they are actively looking for work, rather than claiming to be housewives; this changes their labor status since they are considered part of the workforce and included in unemployment figures. The modern sectors tend to sustain income levels during a crisis while reducing the labor force and the number of hours worked. Traditional construction, commerce and cottage industries show the sharpest drops in employment levels.

Some of DAWN’S recommendations for research have been set forth here. Much of the research conducted in the region deals with the indices of employment and unemployment and income levels by gender, age, occupational sector, employment status, civil status, and age of children. It is important, however, to study this data comparatively in periods of recession and in periods of growth. All data should be disaggregated by sex and regional variations taken into account. Information collection should not only focus on the workplace but on household units as well. Several case studies should be undertaken to obtain specific information not obtainable from aggregate data.

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Afterwards, thanks to the support of FLACSO-Bolivia and Gloria Ardaya, the Regional Latin American Meeting of DAWN took place in La Paz. The working group decided that it was important to analyze the effects of the crisis from the perspective of both the labor market and the household . Household surveys are important because they cover work done in the home and part-time work not covered by social security. Employment data provides only information on formal activities. When possible, therefore, data collection should be accompanied by information from case studies .

More women than ever
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